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This resource is collection of the best and latest research on vaping and other reduced-harm products, medical journal articles, as well as journalistic pieces organized by topic that contain valuable data, information, and perspectives on tobacco harm reduction, vaping, and safer nicotine products.

Our intention is update this resource with additional sources as they become available, so please check back often.

Highlighted Resources

These resources are some of the highest rated, latest research on vaping.

Balancing Consideration of the Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarettes

The American Journal of Public Health
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Nicotine Without Smoke: Tobacco Harm Reduction

Royal College of Physicians
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Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation

Cochrane Review
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A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy

The New England Journal of Medicine
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Scientific Research / Articles

Smoking Cessation

July 26, 2017
Shu-Hong Zhu, Yue-Lin Zhuang, Shiushing Wong, Sharon E Cummins, Gary J Tedeschi
"The substantial increase in e-cigarette use among US adult smokers was associated with a statistically significant increase in the smoking cessation rate at the population level."
Aug 31, 2017
David T Levy, Zhe Yuan, Yuying Luo, David B Abrams
"Consistent with randomized trials and those observational studies that measure frequency of e-cigarette use, both quit attempts and quit success were positively associated with increased frequency of e-cigarette use. Frequency of e-cigarette use was important in gauging the nature of these relationships."
March 24, 2018
Kaitlyn M Berry, Lindsay M Reynolds, Jason M Collins, Michael B Siegel, Jessica L Fetterman, Naomi M Hamburg, Aruni Bhatnagar, Emelia J Benjamin, Andrew Stokes
"Daily e-cigarette initiators were more likely to have quit smoking cigarettes or reduced use compared with non-users. However, less frequent e-cigarette use was not associated with cigarette cessation/reduction. These results suggest incorporating frequency of e-cigarette use is important for developing a more thorough understanding of the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette cessation."
Feb 14, 2019
Peter Hajek, Ph.D., Anna Phillips-Waller, B.Sc., Dunja Przulj, Ph.D., Francesca Pesola, Ph.D., Katie Myers Smith, D.Psych., Natalie Bisal, M.Sc., Jinshuo Li, M.Phil., Steve Parrott, M.Sc., Peter Sasieni, Ph.D., Lynne Dawkins, Ph.D., Louise Ross, Maciej Goniewicz, Ph.D., Pharm.D., et al.
May 23, 2019
Science Media Centre
Sept 9, 2019
Natalie Walker, PhD, Varsha Parag, MSc, Marjolein Verbiest, PhD, George Laking, MBChB, Prof Murray Laugesen, MBChB, Prof Christopher Bullen, MBChB
Sept 17, 2019
Allison Glasser, MPH, Mahathi Vojjala, MPH, Jennifer Cantrell, DrPH, MPA, David T Levy, PhD, Daniel P Giovenco, PhD, MPH, David Abrams, PhD, Raymond Niaura, PhD
Oct 14, 2020
Cochrane Review - Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Hayden McRobbie, Nicola Lindson, Chris Bullen, Rachna Begh, Annika Theodoulou, Caitlin Notley, Nancy A Rigotti, Tari Turner, Ailsa R Butler, Peter Hajek
Feb 2021
Ann McNeill, Leonie Brose, Robert Calder, Erikas Simonavicius, Debbie Robson
"Studies show that tens of thousands of smokers stopped as a result of vaping in 2017, similar to estimates in previous years. Compared to the 2018 review, there is stronger evidence in this year’s report that nicotine vaping products are effective for smoking cessation and reduction."
June 29, 2021
Katie Myers Smith, Anna Phillips-Waller, Francesca Pesola, Hayden McRobbie, Dunja Przulj, Marzena Orzol, Peter Hajek
"In smokers unable to quit using conventional methods, e-cigarettes were more effective than nicotine replacement therapy in facilitating validated long-term smoking reduction and smoking cessation, when limited other support was provided."

Harm Reduction

March 6, 2013
Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz, Jakub Knysak, Michal Gawron, Leon Kosmider, Andrzej Sobczak, Jolanta Kurek, Adam Prokopowicz, Magdalena Jablonska-Czapla, Czeslawa Rosik-Dulewska, Christopher Havel, Peyton Jacob III, Neal Benowitz
"We found that the e-cigarette vapours contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9–450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable with trace amounts found in the reference product. Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit, warrants further study."
April 28, 2016
Royal College of Physicians
July 11, 2016
Carl D. D’Ruiz, Donald W. Graff & Edward Robinson
"Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days."
Aug 17, 2016
Maciej L. Goniewicz, Michal Gawron, Danielle M. Smith, Margaret Peng, Peyton Jacob, III, Neal L. Benowitz
"After switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes, nicotine exposure remains unchanged, while exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants is substantially reduced."
Sept 18, 2016
Jennifer Margham, Kevin McAdam, Mark Forster, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Derek Mariner, and Christopher Proctor
"Thus, the aerosol from the e-cigarette is compositionally less complex than cigarette smoke and contains significantly lower levels of toxicants. These data demonstrate that e-cigarettes can be developed that offer the potential for substantially reduced exposure to cigarette toxicants."
March 21, 2017
Lion Shahab, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Benjamin C. Blount, Jamie Brown, Ann McNeill, K. Udeni Alwis, June Feng, Lanqing Wang, Robert West
"Long-term NRT-only and e-cigarette–only use, but not dual use of NRTs or e-cigarettes with combustible cigarettes, is associated with substantially reduced levels of measured carcinogens and toxins relative to smoking only combustible cigarettes."
Oct 2, 2017
David T Levy, Ron Borland, Eric N Lindblom, Maciej L Goniewicz, Rafael Meza, Theodore R Holford, Zhe Yuan, Yuying Luo, Richard J O’Connor, Raymond Niaura, David B Abrams
Jan 23, 2018
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
"Evidence suggests that while e-cigarettes are not without health risks, they are likely to be far less harmful than conventional cigarettes, the report says. They contain fewer numbers and lower levels of toxic substances than conventional cigarettes, and using e-cigarettes may help adults who smoke conventional cigarettes quit smoking."
April 2018
David B. Abrams, Allison M. Glasser, Jennifer L. Pearson, Andrea C. Villanti, Lauren K. Collins, and Raymond S. Niaura
"ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke. ANDS may provide a means to compete with, and even replace, combusted cigarette use, saving more lives more rapidly than previously possible."
Dec 13, 2019
Amy Fairchild, Cheryl Healton, James Curran, David Abrams, Ronald Bayer
Feb 2020
Gideon St. Helen, Evangelia Liakoni, Natalie Nardone, Newton Addo, Peyton Jacob III and Neal L. Benowitz
"In conclusion, e-cigarettes expose users to lower levels of toxic VOCs, supporting their harm reduction potential among smokers."
Nov 18, 2020
Kim Pulvers, Nicole L. Nollen, Myra Rice, Christopher H. Schmid, Kexin Qu, Neal L. Benowitz, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia
"These findings suggest that e-cigarettes may be an inclusive harm reduction strategy for African American and Latinx smokers."
March 7, 2021
Mike Pesko
Aug 19, 2021
David J. K. Balfour, DSc, Neal L. Benowitz, MD, Suzanne M. Colby, PhD, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, PhD, Harry A. Lando, PhD, Scott J. Leischow, PhD, Caryn Lerman, PhD, Robin J. Mermelstein, PhD, Raymond Niaura, PhD, Kenneth A. Perkins, PhD, Ovide F. Pomerleau, PhD, Nancy A. Rigotti, MD, Gary E. Swan, PhD, Kenneth E. Warner, PhD, and Robert West, PhD
"In a new paper, the most influential tobacco control experts in the country have come together to endorse the harm reduction benefits of vaping for adult smokers, calling for the rehabilitation of its public image and emphasizing its ability to save lives as a safer alternative to combustible cigarettes. The publication represents the most organized and explicit call-out by such scholars to date."

Health Effects

May 8, 2014
Riccardo Polosa, Jaymin Morjaria, Pasquale Caponnetto, Massimo Caruso, Simona Strano, Eliana Battaglia, Cristina Russo
"This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods."
June 20, 2016
Davide Campagna, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Massimo Caruso, Jaymin B. Morjaria, Mario Malerba, Riccardo Polosa
"Smokers invited to switch to electronic cigarettes who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their exhaled breath measurements and symptom scores. FeNo and eCO normalization is highly supportive of improved respiratory health outcomes and adds to the notion that quitting from tobacco smoking can reverse harm in the lung."
March 21, 2017
Lion Shahab, PhD; Maciej L. Goniewicz, PhD; Benjamin C. Blount, PhD; Jamie Brown, PhD; Ann McNeill, PhD; K. Udeni Alwis, PhD; June Feng, PhD; Lanqing Wang, PhD; Robert West, PhD
Nov 17, 2017
Riccardo Polosa, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Umberto Prosperini, Cristina Russo & Donald Tashkin
Feb 2, 2019
Andrea MacDonald, Holly R Middlekauff
"Though they may not be as harmless as previously proposed, it seems likely that on the spectrum of tobacco products, Electronic Cigarettes are less harmful than Tobacco Cigarettes, and there is increasing evidence that Electronic Cigarettes may help promote Tobacco Cigarette cessation. As such, Electronic Cigarettes may be helpful for risk reduction in future."
Nov 15, 2019
Jacob George, Muhammad Hussain, Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Sheila Ireland, Pippa Hopkinson, Allan D. Struthers, Peter T. Donnan, Faisel Khan and Chim C. Lang
Sept 4, 2020
Ricardo Polosa , Jaymin B Morjaria , Umberto Prosperini, Barbara Busà, Alfio Pennisi, Mario Malerba, Marilena Maglia and Pasquale Caponnetto
Jan 4, 2021
Andrew C. Stokes, Wubin Xie, Anna E. Wilson, Hanqi Yang, Olusola A. Orimoloye, Alyssa F. Harlow, Jessica L. Fetterman, Andrew P. DeFilippis, Emelia J. Benjamin, Rose Marie Robertson, Aruni Bhatnagar, Naomi M. Hamburg, Michael J. Blaha
"In this nationally representative population study of adults, we observed no difference in inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers between exclusive e-cigarette users and nonusers (no cigarettes or vaping), and levels were lower in exclusive e-cigarette users relative to exclusive smokers. These findings are consistent with recent population studies of inflammatory biomarker and toxicant exposure in users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and highlight the importance of completely replacing cigarette smoking with e-cigarettes or quitting the use of both products for cigarette smokers to derive potential health benefits."
July 22, 2021
Clayton R Critcher, Michael Siegel
"There is no reliable evidence that e-cigarette use is associated with ever having had a myocardial infarction among never smokers. Contrary to concerns that the harms associated with e-cigarettes are only now emerging after more years of possible product use, the only evidence of time-dependent variation in the association between e-cigarette use and myocardial infarction ran counter to this possibility."


June 11, 2020
Yong Yang, Eric N. Lindblom, Ramzi G. Salloum, and Kenneth D. Ward
July 09, 2020
Christopher J. Cadham, Luz Maria Sanchez-Romero, Nancy L. Fleischer, Ritesh Mistry, Jana L. Hirschtick, Rafael Meza & David T. Levy
Feb 25, 2021
Lin Li, PhD, Ron Borland, PhD, K Michael Cummings, PhD, Geoffrey T Fong, PhD, Shannon Gravely, PhD, Danielle M Smith, MPH, Maciej L Goniewicz, PhD, Richard J O’Connor, PhD, Mary E Thompson, PhD, Ann McNeill, PhD

Youth Usage

Aug 07, 2017
Jean-François Etter
"The gateway theory is not compatible with either (1) the decrease in smoking prevalence observed in adolescents in countries where vaping increased or (2) an increase in smoking among teenagers after age restrictions were imposed on e-cigarette purchases... Finally, neither nicotine medications nor smokeless tobacco produce gateway effects. Available data are compatible with a common liability model in which people who are liable to use nicotine are more likely to use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes."
April 16, 2018
David T Levy, Kenneth E Warner, K Michael Cummings, David Hammond, Charlene Kuo, Geoffrey T Fong, James F Thrasher, Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz, Ron Borland
April 30, 2018
Kenneth E Warner
"Principal findings include the following: (1) while longitudinal studies suggest that vaping increases never-smoking young people’s odds of trying smoking, national survey data indicate that adolescents’ 30-day smoking prevalence decreased at an unprecedented rate precisely whereas vaping increased. Use of all other tobacco products also declined. (2) Recent population-level studies add evidence that vaping is increasing adult smoking cessation. (3) Vaping is likely to make a positive contribution to public health."
Jan 27, 2020
Allison M Glasser, MPH, Amanda L Johnson, MHS, Raymond S Niaura, PhD, David B Abrams, PhD, Jennifer L Pearson, PhD, MPH
April 25, 2020
Floe Foxon, Arielle S. Selya
"Electronic cigarettes may have offset conventional smoking among US adolescents between 2010 and 2018 by maintaining the total nicotine use prevalence and diverting them from more harmful conventional smoking. Additionally, electronic cigarette users appear to initiate at older ages relative to conventional smokers, which is associated with lower risk."
June 12, 2020
Sooyong Kim, Arielle S Selya
"Our findings show that the apparent relationship between e-cigarette use and current cigarette smoking is entirely attributable to shared risk factors for tobacco use."
Jan 04, 2021
Arielle S. Selya, Floe Foxon
Using data simulations, these researchers have concluded that the "gateway" effect (that youth who vape will progress to smoking) does not align with the real-world data reported in the CDC's National Youth Tobacco Surveys. In fact, they find that the most likely scenario is that vaping diverts youth from smoking.
Jan 06, 2021
Sarah E. Jackson, Jamie Brown, Martin J. Jarvis
"Among US high school students, increases in the prevalence of nicotine product use from 2012 to 2019 do not appear to have been accompanied by a similar increase in the population burden of nicotine dependence. This may be at least partly attributable to a shift in the most common product of choice from cigarettes (on which users are most dependent) to e-cigarettes (on which users are least dependent)."
March 18, 2021
Wayne Hall, Gary Chan
"E-cigarette use has also not been accompanied by increased cigarette smoking among young people in the United States, as would be the case if e-cigarette use were a major gateway to cigarette smoking. The latter findings suggest that any gateway effect of e-cigarettes is small at the population level because smoking prevalence has continued to decline, despite an increased uptake of e-cigarettes among young adults in countries that allow their sale."
March 18, 2021
Jasmine N. Khouja ,Robyn E. Wootton,Amy E. Taylor,George Davey Smith,Marcus R. Munafò
"Our results indicate that there may be a shared genetic aetiology between smoking and e-cigarette use, and also with socioeconomic position, externalising disorders in childhood, and risky behaviour more generally. This indicates that there may be a common genetic vulnerability to both smoking and e-cigarette use, which may reflect a broad risk-taking phenotype... Smoking may cause people to use e-cigarettes (i.e., to stop smoking), but there may also be an underlying genetic predisposition to risk-taking which influences the likelihood that someone will both smoke and use e-cigarettes. The findings could have important implications for policy—if young people are predisposed to both smoking and using e-cigarettes, bans which aim to prevent e-cigarette use may encourage smoking where only cigarettes are available."
May 15, 2021
Natasha A Sokol, Justin M Feldman
"Vaping is largely concentrated among non-smoking youth who would likely have smoked prior to the introduction of e-cigarettes, and the introduction of e-cigarettes has coincided with an acceleration in the decline in youth smoking rates."

Smokeless Tobacco

April 11, 2019
Michael T. Fisher, Susan Marie Tan-Torres, Charles L. Gaworski, Ryan A. Black & Mohamadi A. Sarkar
May 28, 2020
Marzieh Araghi, Maria Rosaria Galanti, Michael Lundberg, Zhiwei Liu, Weimin Ye, Anton Lager, Gunnar Engström, Lars Alfredsson, Anders Knutsson, Margareta Norberg, Patrik Wennberg, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Rino Bellocco, Nancy L. Pedersen, Per-Olof Östergren, Cecilia Magnusson

Regulatory Effects

Jan 15, 2019
Dhaval Dave, Bo Feng, Michael F. Pesko
"...our findings suggest a possible unintended effect of e-cigarette MLSA laws-rising cigarette use in the short term while youth are restricted from purchasing e-cigarettes."
Dec 13, 2019
Henry Saffer, Michael Grossman, Daniel Dench, Dhaval Dave
"Estimates suggest that the e-cigarette tax increased adult smoking and reduced smoking cessation in Minnesota..."
May 5, 2021
Amanda Katchmar, Adrian Gunawan, Michael Siegel
"These results suggest that the Massachusetts flavor ban and tax did not reduce e-cigarette consumption in the Greater Boston area, and that messaging questioning the safety of e-cigarettes led to an increase in combustible cigarette use."
May 24, 2021
Abigail S. Friedman
"San Francisco’s ban on flavored tobacco product sales was associated with increased smoking among minor high school students relative to other school districts."
July 31, 2021
Heather Posner, Katelyn Romm, Lisa Henriksen, Debra Bernat, Carla J Berg
"Young adult e-cigarette users indicate low support for e-cigarette sales restrictions (both for flavored products and complete restrictions). Moreover, if vape product sales were restricted to tobacco flavors, 39.1% of users reported being likely to continue using e-cigarettes but 33.2% were likely to switch to cigarettes. If vape product sales were entirely restricted, e-cigarette users were equally likely to switch to cigarettes versus not (~40%). Those most likely to report positive impact of such policies being implemented were less frequent users, never-smokers, and those with greater e-cigarette-related health concerns. This research should be considered in future tobacco control initiatives."

News Media / Blog Articles

Smoking Cessation

Jan 30, 2019
Jan Hoffman, The New York Times
Feb 7, 2019
Stanton Peele, Filter Magazine
Jan 28, 2021
Jennifer Maloney, The Wall Street Journal

Harm Reduction

Jun 19, 2015
Sally Satel, Forbes
March 5, 2016
Anna Fels, The New York Times
Nov 15, 2018
Tom Miller, The Washington Post
Jan 14, 2019
Helen Redmond, Filter Magazine
June 27, 2019
Michael McGrady, Filter Magazine
July 11, 2019
Rachel Harrison, NYU
July 11, 2019
CNBC Interview with John Newton
July 26, 2019
Michael Siegel, National Review
Sept 16, 2019
The Inquirer Editorial Board
Sept 20, 2019
CBS Interview with David Abrams
Nov 12, 2019
The New York Times Editorial Board
Nov 12, 2019
Steve Forbes, Forbes
Nov 14, 2019
Alex Norcia, Vice
Nov 14, 2019
Katelyn Newman, USA News
Nov 25, 2019
Gregory Conley, USA Today
Dec 18, 2019
Clive Bates, Filter Magazine
Feb 7, 2020
The Economist
Nov 24, 2020
Maria Papaioannoy, The Hamilton Spectator
Jan 6, 2021
Michael McGrady, Filter Magazine


Mar 24, 2020
Roberto Sussman and Carmen Escrig
Jan 04, 2021
Jacob James Rich, Reason Foundation
June 11, 2021
Guy Bentley, Reason Foundation


Sept 12, 2019
Jeremy Samuel Faust, Slate
Sept 13, 2019
Tom Chivers, UnHerd
Sept 24, 2019
David Downs, Dave Howard, and Bruce Barcott, Leafly
Nov 22, 2019
Guy Bentley, Real Clear Policy
Jan 16, 2020
Michelle Minton, Competitive Enterprise Institute

Youth Usage

Aug 29, 2017
Henry Bodkin, The Telegraph
Sept 30, 2019
Eliza Shapiro, CNN
Oct 9, 2019
Annie Kleykamp, Filter Magazine
Dec 20, 2019
Michelle Minton, Competitive Enterprise Institute

Tobacco Control

Dec 5, 2018
Michelle Minton, Competitive Enterprise Institute
Dec 18, 2018
Michael McGrady, Capital Research
Feb 1, 2019
Ronald W. Dworkin, The American Interest
April 4, 2019
Michelle Minton, Medium
July 17, 2019
USA Today Interview with Brad Rodu
Oct 17, 2019
Daniel Giovenco, The Washington Post
Feb 13, 2020
Helen Redmond, Filter Magazine
Feb 26, 2020
Michael McGrady, Filter Magazine